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2016年成人高考高起点英语复习:形容词和副词

 形容词和副词在语法结构中主要用于比较级和*高级。形容词和副词的构成形式基本上一样,它们的形式与单音节、双音节和多音节有关,当然还有其特殊形式。形容词和副词比较级的基本用法分为同级比较、比较级和*高级三种形式。但这三种形式都有它们特殊的表达方式以及它们的惯用法。对以下要点大家须一一掌握。

  形容词比较级和*高级的形式

  一、形容词比较级和*高级的构成

  形容词的比较级和*高级变化形式规则如下

  构 成 法 原 级 比 较 级 * 高 级

  ① 一般单音节词末尾加er 和 est strong stronger strongest

  ② 单音节词如果以e结尾,只加r 和st strange stranger strangest

  ③ 闭音节单音节词如末尾只有 一个辅音字母,

  须先双写这个辅音字母,再加er和est sad

  big

  hot sadder

  bigger

  hotter saddest

  biggest

  hottest

  ④ 少数以y,er(或ure),ow,ble结尾的双音节词,

  末尾加er和est(以y结尾的词,如y前是辅音字母,

  把y变成i,再加er和est,以e结尾的词仍

  只加r和st) angry

  clever

  narrow

  noble angrier

  cleverer

  narrower

  nobler angrest

  cleverest

  narrowest

  noblest

  ⑤ 其他双音节和多音节词都在前面加单词more和most different more

  different most

  different

  二、形容词比较级或*高级的特殊形式:

  1. 三个或三个以上音节的形容词只能加more和most

  只能说 more beautiful而不能说beautifuller; 只能说the most beautiful而不能说beautifullest.

  但是,以形容前缀un结尾的三音节形容词不适合上述情况,如unhappy,untidy,我们可以说:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest

  2. 由ING分词和ED分词演变过来的形容词(包括不规则动词如know→known)只能加more或most来表示它们的比较级和*高级

  more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn等。

  3. 英语里有些形容词由于其词义而不可能有比较级形式

  absolute fatal main right universal

  chief final naked simulta- utter

  entire foremost perfect neous vital

  eternal inevitable possible sufficient whole

  excellent infinite primary supreme wooden

  三、不规则形容词的比较级和*高级形式

  good

  well better best

  bad

  ill worse worst

  many

  much more most

  little

  few less least

  far farther farthest

  further furthest

  副词比较级和*高级的形式

  副词比较级和*高级的变化形式与形容词基本上一样

  一般 副词

  hard→harder →hardest

  fast→faster →fastest

  late→later →latest

  early→earlier →earliest

  特殊 副词

  well →better →best

  much →more →most

  badly →worse →worst

  little →less →least 但是,开放类副词即以后缀ly结尾的副词不能像形容词那样加er或est,如

  quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly

  [注]: early中的ly不是后缀,故可以把y变i再加er和est

  一、原级比较的基本用法

  1. 原级比较由“as+形容词或副词(或再加名词或短语)+as ”构成“原级相同”比较句,表示两者比较;其否定式,即“程度不及”比较句型为“not so(as) +形容词或副词+as”,而且as…as结构前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的词修饰

  2. “as (so)+名词+as+名词”进行名词比较,这时一般情况下有一个表示原级的比较词,但如果第*名词前出现了形容词修饰该词或出现副词修饰谓语,应当用so而不用as

  二、比较级

  1. 比较级由“形容词(副词)比较级+than+…,”构成表示在两者中间一方比另一方“更加…”。连词than后可接句子,也可接名词、代词、名词短语、介词短语、动词、动词不定式、ING结构和ED结构,有时也可省去than.

  2. 注意than前后两项相比较的人或事物要一致

  三、*高级

  1. *高级用于三者以上比较,形容词的结构形式是“定冠词+形容词*高级+名词+表示范围的短语或从句”(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)

  2. 副词的*高级与形容词*高级的区别在于*高级前没有定冠词the

  四、同步练习

  1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .

  [A] to run for fifteen minutes

  [B] running for fifteen minutes

  [C] you run for fifteen minutes

  [D] fifteenminute walking

  解析:B为正确答案。

  2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(记忆力) in solving [D] a problem.

  解析:B错。改为 as ,和前面的as和形容词原形curious 一起构成同程度比较。

  3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas.

  解析:B错。 改为as large.

  4) Thomas Jefferson's achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.

  [A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than

  解析:C对。动词rival(胜过、匹敌)前后是两个相比较的成分achievements(成果)和 contributions(贡献),由于前面的名词后出现了短语 as an architect,故空白处也应用as,使前后对比成分一致。

  5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter.

  [A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as

  解析:B为正确答案。

  6) Natural mica(云母) of [A] a superior [B] quality is cheapest [C] to obtain than synthetic [D] mica.

  解析:C错。应改为比较级cheaper.比较级后并不一定跟接连词than,有时在其间有名词或名词短语(被形容词所修饰),介词短语,不定式或其他成分隔开。

  7) She is older than .

  [A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group

  [C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group

  解析:A为正确答案。“She”作为单个不能跟全组比(C和D不对),也不能跟全组所有相比,因为“她”也是其中一员,自然“她”不能跟自己相比。这里“She”比较的是“这组中的任何一个”,所以A对。

  8) Josephine McCrackin joined [A] the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work.

  解析:B错。应改为比较级later,因此处实为与1905年相比晚15年,故应使用比较级。

  9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .

  [A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us

  解析:D为正确答案。

  10) Sound travels air.

  [A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and

  [C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through

  解析:A为正确答案。

  11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand's pupils, followed [A] the style of his teacher so implicitly that [B] his paintings [C] are sometimes confused with his master [D] .

  解析:D错。 改为his master's.

  12) The more [A] fearsome of all the [B] animals in [C] the Western [D] Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.

  解析:A错。 改为most.

  13) Of all economic [A] problems, inflation continues to be [B] a [C] most significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business.

  解析:C错。改为the, significant是多音节形容词,在此处应用*高级形式(在前面加 the most),注意句中的“of all… ”。

  14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.

  [A] All the activities [B] The activities

  [C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities

  解析:C为正确答案。本句空白处缺状语,A和B全为名词短语,不符合条件;D为句子,和空白后面的句子没有任何联系,故亦应排除。只有C正确,和后面的*高级the most familiar前后呼应。